- Although the criminal law against adult sex work is not enforced, it does exacerbate poverty by depriving sex workers of the civil rights and access to services they need.
- To remove structural determinants of poverty the law should be removed to make way for sex workers to claim rights under labour and other administrative legal provisions and to benefit from antidiscrimination and other human rights law.
- The inclusion of sex workers in Ethiopia’s Social Protection Policy should be recognised and applauded.
- All adult women born in Ethiopia who sell sex
SDG 3: Ensure healthy lives & promote well-being
To work towards inclusive development that addresses social exclusion, development actors need to shape and implement development policies that ensure:
- That all people irrespective of their sexuality and gender identity are actively protected against social, economic and political forms of discrimination.
- That health, education, and social protection resources that contribute towards individual wellbeing and overall socioeconomic development are made available to all those in need, leaving no one behind.
- This case study presents five examples of the violation of sexual and reproductive health rights of women living with HIV, and explores the underlying causes and dynamics.
- The review presents a number of key recommendations for South African activists, the South African government, and international donors such as measures to harmonise existing policies to fit the needs of women living with HIV
- Establish and institutionalise rights-based training for health care workers and to institute redress mechanisms for women whose rights have been violated
- Law-makers and policymakers at the national level should involve people with disabilities and grass-roots organisations in the consultation processes, to guarantee their needs and desires are represented and reflected in the policies and laws that are relevant to them
- Local and regional ministries that are responsible for implementing national policies should integrate education on sexual and reproductive health and rights across national policies and provide better access to sexual health resources for people with disabilities
- NGOs and the civil society sector working
- Facilitate awareness-generation sessions on psycho-social, medical and legal processes involved in feminisation/masculinisation (gender identity change, sexual reassignment surgery, hormonal therapy) for transgender people
- Facilitate continuing initiatives that train and handhold people in negotiating the rules and regulations (paperwork) in applying for and accessing social security schemes, including timely follow-up
- Support community discourse42 on issues of gender, sexuality and human rights to generate awareness and address self-stigma among people with non-normat
- The poverty and poor socioeconomic conditions in which many sexual and gender minority peoples live should be addressed through holistic initiatives that extend beyond skills training
- Initiatives addressing discrimination and socioeconomic marginalisation should be mainstreamed within pre-existing development projects
- Specifically within the context of Nepal, avenues for people of sexual and gender minority experience to receive formal recognition and certification of their education, skills and qualifications is imperative for chances to obtain employment
- Homosexuality is illegal in Ethiopia, same-sex behaviour is not prosecuted because the government views it as a low law enforcement priority
- The illegality of same-sex relations continues to drive and justify social and economic exclusion and human rights abuses of same-sex attracted people
- Homosexuality has never been criminalised and sexual orientation has been designated a 'private matter' by government
- Civil society organisations have some freedom to work on LGBT issues as long as they are aligned with the government's agenda
- Philippine law does not criminalize consensual same-sex acts and the principle of equality and non-discrimination are enshrined in the Constitution.
- However, homosexuality continues to be policed in other ways such as arbitrary arrest by rogue enforcement officers, discrimination in social protection policies and bullying within the education system.
- In 2011, Nepal became the first country in the world to add a third category in addition to male and female in the national population and housing census. Since 2013, the state have begun to issue citizenship documents listing a third gender.
- While this affirms the equal citizenship rights of third gender people in Nepal, they continue to experience explicit prejudice, lack of economic opportunity and familial rejection.